Spray-dried chitosan/NaCl composite microparticle increase saltiness perception
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University
The purpose of this study was to produce chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles as a low-sodium and high-salinity salty agent. The nine chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were produced by spray drying under identical conditions using a centrifugal nozzle. The solutions passed through at 18.52 mL/min feed flow rate, 15,000 rpm, with inlet and outlet temperatures of 140 and 90 °C, respectively. The composition, physicochemical properties and salinity (sensory evaluation) of spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were tested. The chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were hollow and had a favourable hygroscopicity, and increased NaCl content and decreased organic acid content. Their size of the microparticles was 15.4–32.0 μm and increased with NaCl concentration. The microparticles of acetic and lactic acid groups had a NaCl crystal size of 1–2 and 1–4 μm, respectively. The NaCl crystals of acetic, lactic and citric acid group microparticles were distributed on the microparticle matrices, mostly on the microparticle surface and mainly on the inner walls of the microparticles walls, respectively. The acetic and lactic acid group microparticles were relatively smaller than general salt, with NaCl crystals distributed on the particle surfaces. Consequently, they were perceived as saltier than general salt and could potentially be regarded as a low-sodium salt for surface-salted foods. In literature, the spray-dried NaCl micro- and/or nano-particles were produced and applied for cheese crackers. Due to the particles relatively small size compared to common salts, only 50%–75% of the volume of common salts was required to produce a similar level of saltiness. The NaCl/maltodextrin particles were produced by spray-drying. This treatment decrease of salt particle size could improve melting speed and it could be helpful to enhance intensity of saltiness with small amount of salt. Our study can decrease of salt particle size also, in addition, the NaCl crystal can distributed in the particle surface, reducing NaCl up to 20%–50% compared to common salts. And the chitosan/NaCl microparticle can decrease cholesterol due to contain chitosan.